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    I always look at the guest list in advance and make a beeline for the people I want to target! The Chancellor of the University, Sir Andrew Witty, is a Nottingham alumnus as well as being CEO of GSK.

    Dan Kingscote who is a fellow-student and Vice-President of Enactus Nottingham and I requested a meeting with Andrew and he agreed.

    We explained why we wanted to take an MSc in CSR and how we planned to use it. This may sound a bit cheeky, but we just asked him straight out if GSK would fund our MScs and he said that he would see what he could do.

    GSK have created two roles for myself and Dan in their global healthcare team, where we will be helping them to build in sustainable models to aid the development of African Healthcare systems.

    I thought that it would be good to have a thorough grounding in CSR and the Nottingham course ticked all the boxes.

    Enactus Nottingham is a branch of Enactus UK, which is part of an international non-profit organisation that brings together student, academic and business leaders who are committed to using the power of entrepreneurial action to improve the quality of life and standard of living for people in need.

    I first got involved in and became President of the Nottingham branch in We have more than members at the University and are working on 10 projects in the UK and Africa.

    Some of these include:. Empower Malawi was set up by Dan Kingscote and I also work on it alongside Lucy Harvey.

    The project works with a rural village in Malawi where we have developed a solar-powered fishing light which can be used as an extremely cheap source of light.

    This is intended as a replacement for the current paraffin-powered fishing lights on Lake Malawi. The project also has significant environmental benefits.

    I am the founder and managing director of Think for the Future, which aims to equip young people in the UK with the knowledge they need to reach their full potential in life.

    We want to reduce the amount of young people involved in crime and reduce the number of young people falling victim to sexual and emotional abuse.

    We design and deliver specialist workshops for young people covering issues underrepresented in curricular education: drug abuse, gang culture, criminal behaviours, grooming and exploitation, sexism, and e-safety.

    We work with the Young Foundation and have just received investment from them to expand and grow the business. Re-covered is a new Enactus project run by Lucy Bushby, a student I have mentored in Enactus.

    Re-covered collects and refurbishes unwanted furniture to provide affordable furniture to those in need, whilst creating employment and preventing waste.

    We also have contracts with Nottingham City Council, who send over items of furniture per week to land fill. We redirect a portion of this to be upcycled and then sold to Housing Associations.

    Think for the Future and Empower Malawi are now exiting from Enactus Nottingham but will be staying under the wing of the University by moving into the Ingenuity Lab at the Business School for their next stage of development.

    Enactus Nottingham was set up over 12 years ago at the University and since has grown in strength as well as in the complexity and scope in terms of the projects that it works on.

    The appeal for me was the way that it approaches social issues both in the UK and internationally. I found that eye-opening. Unlike many traditional charity or aid projects, Enactus is about tackling issues through innovative solutions that also happen to be sustainable and scalable businesses - so their positive impact on the community is maximised.

    Nottingham Community Housing Association. Re-covered is a furniture project that recycles and refurbishes items of furniture and sells them on at an affordable price….

    Nottingham City Council is working hard over the next few weeks to support students who are leaving the city and to ensure neighbourhoods are kept clean….

    Our Neighbourhood Services Teams for the Arboretum and Lenton areas have put in place a full time response crew to help keep our neighbourhoods clean and support student in clearing household waste as they leave the city.

    The crew, along with support from Waste Advisors in the area, will be clearing and advising students and landlords on waste related issues such as side waste, waste in front gardens, bins on street reporting and returning these to front gardens Crews will be also be clearing waste from main roads and driveways.

    Students are also being reminded to use the local textile collection banks provided by the British Heart Foundation at:. We know the majority of students try hard to manage their waste when they leave but where some need more support we are providing further education and advice.

    This also allows partners agencies to speak to landlords and student about the part they have to play in this process. The construction of the new complex will see the comprehensive redevelopment of the existing sports centre to make way for a new building, which will be three times the previous size.

    The complex will include a new main sports hall, station fitness suite, sports science facilities and office accommodation.

    The creation of a modern, custom-built sporting infrastructure will play a major role in inspiring increased participation. It will also incorporate two adjoining and adaptable court sports halls, each offering the flexibility to host two events or more simultaneously or hold one large event in activities as diverse as basketball, handball, netball, indoor hockey, futsal and badminton.

    The building is also expected to include a climbing wall, indoor sprint track, strength and conditioning facility, archery and fencing hall, dance studios, snooker hall and martial arts dojo.

    Squash courts are proposed including a full glass court with spectator seating. The developments signal our intention for sport to be a focus for the student experience, but also to provide outstanding provision for our staff and the local community.

    I am immensely grateful to David for his contribution which will enable us to achieve our vision for sport at the University. David Ross studied Law at Nottingham and continues to be a committed supporter of the University.

    In , The David Ross Foundation made the lead donation to support the Nottingham Potential programme, a major investment in the future of primary and secondary-age pupils, helping to break down barriers to higher education.

    The donation will be the biggest single gift the University has received from one of its graduates. I have always believed it is essential that all young people have the opportunity to participate in a number of sports at all levels throughout their time in education, be it primary, secondary or further education.

    As well as supporting this activity at the University, this new Sports Village will also provide partner organisations with a greater range of facilities for all to use and benefit from.

    Construction on the new complex is due to start in February and completion is expected in June My Science. The University of Nottingham will be officially launching its third IntoUniversity centre in Hyson Green on 29 April, helping young people in the area to reach university….

    The IntoUniversity Nottingham Central Centre is part of the Nottingham Potentialprogramme, which represents a major investment in the future of the primary and secondary-age school pupils and a multimillion pound commitment to help break down the barriers to higher education.

    Nottingham Central Centre is part of the Nottingham Potentialprogramme, which represents a major investment in the future of the primary and secondary-age school pupils and a multimillion pound commitment to help break down the barriers to higher education.

    Delivered by education charity Into University in partnership with The University of Nottingham, Nottingham Potential is providing new learning centres in the local community to support pupils from the ages of , including one-to-one support with homework, literacy and numeracy, coursework, exams, GCSE options and A-levels, careers advice and applications to university.

    This is the third of three learning centres to be opened in Nottingham. IntoUniversity Nottingham West in Broxtowe was opened in February and IntoUniversity Nottingham East opened in April The centres provide a base within the community for long-term, tailored support for young people.

    The David Ross Foundation was founded by David Ross, Nottingham law alumnus and co-founder of Carphone Warehouse. It will increase outreach significantly — particularly in regard to work with primary and lower-secondary school pupils.

    The impact that the two centres have had on those who have attended is immense and they are already benefitting from the additional support.

    This third and final centre will undoubtedly be equally successful and we look forward to welcoming many more young people through the doors in the years to come.

    The University has launched Nottingham Potential alongside a significant increase in bursaries for low-income students. David Ross is co-chair of the Campaign Board.

    The additional support from Nottingham Potential for students has resulted in more applicants being successful in receiving an offer and in taking up their places.

    Nottingham Potential is helping to deliver a step-change in the number of students from less advantaged backgrounds entering The University of Nottingham.

    The proportion of UK students from low-income backgrounds enrolled at The University of Nottingham rose from David Ross, an alumnus of The University of Nottingham, is providing significant financial support to help turn Nottingham Potential into a reality.

    Mr Ross is the co-founder of the Carphone Warehouse and is the Chairman of the David Ross Foundation, a national charity. We must work with children at an early age to show them that a university education is a door very much open to them.

    Sam Durcam, aged 12 is a pupil at Ellis Guilford School in Nottingham and has been attending sessions at the Nottingham West Potential Centre for almost two years.

    He is currently being mentored by Ben Oakley, almost 10 years his senior and a third year Architecture student at The University of Nottingham.

    I want to stay here as long as I can. Having someone like Ben to talk to is like having an extra app on your phone. Having a mentor relationship with Sam has given me experience of teaching, which is something I might like to develop as a career option.

    The charity, now with 15 centres across London, Bristol and Nottingham, offers an integrated programme of academic support, mentoring and aspiration-raising FOCUS programmes to help young people improve their academic achievement and attaining a university place.

    Into University centres work with children as young as seven to sow the seeds of aspiration early. The Budapest Beacon.

    Betti tried to continue her studies but left because she was the only Gypsy at the school. Attila was completely dissuaded from studying.

    This article presents 13 disenfranchised families in which the parents are afraid their children might drop out of school as they once did.

    Their children struggle with having parents who cannot help them. These photographs were taken where these children typically do their homework.

    His parents were criminals so he was raised in boarding school where he finished only six of the eight grades. Amanda, his daughter, is 14 years old.

    She used to be a good student but that changed. This never happened in Budapest. They eventually moved back to Told and tried to get their daughter back on track.

    Julianna Seres lives with her children in Told. Her eldest son, Norbi, avoids going to school. Norbi spends his time scavenging for metal and lies to his parents about being in school.

    He hangs out with his friends instead of listening to his mother. She left after a few days. Betti quietly told us the experience was strange for her.

    She spent her childhood doing household chores instead of homework. He started hanging out with the wrong crowd, with losers, and he started smoking.

    No laptop, no television. He spent the last 7 years living with his mother and stepfather in a house that only recently got electricity.

    They have to go out to the well for water. He says his dad makes promises all the time but never has the money to follow through with them.

    There are times when she speaks German all day. She does her homework on her own every night. She dreams of becoming a pediatrician.

    Her mother would have liked to become a hairdresser but she never finished school. She eventually became a seamstress. Her eldest son quit school when he got married.

    Her eldest daughter got married when she was still in school and lives in Germany now. Her other daughter made it to her third year in high school but dropped out — something she regrets in hindsight because she never learned any skills.

    He often gets mouthy when his mother starts asking questions. He even graduated [from high school]. He works all day, then cooks for the kids, and can give them about half an hour of his time in the evening.

    He visits the baker in the morning to bring breakfast back for the children. He had to repeat second grade because he had difficulty paying attention during class.

    He enjoys drawing and reading. He often ditched school and eventually dropped out. So she started learning how to sew but dropped out of that too.

    He constantly left school early to help his sick father around the house. Dia is 10, Jancsi is 9. Jancsi wants to be a race car driver.

    Dia wants to be a florist. The kids were practicing math when we visited the family. Dia was showing Jancsi how to count.

    She studies alone and her older siblings sometimes help. Her parents only ask questions. He wants to be a baker.

    She also supervises whether Letti has finished her homework and asks whether she has learned the required poems. Julianna never learned a trade but she would have gladly learned how to be a hairdresser or cosmetician.

    She was 18 when her first child was born. Her eldest daughter is studying to become a police officer and Letti wants to follow in the footsteps of her older sister.

    Instead of spending their time studying, the girls walk about the village. Magdolna thinks she dropped out because she let her.

    But she can only help them in as much as her circumstances allow. One studied village tourism, a number of them even graduated from high schools and learned a trade.

    The wintry morning mist recedes to reveal ancient golden temples resplendent even in a light drizzle. Hundreds of monks in saffron robes glide in a single line toward pilgrims waiting on their knees with pots of sticky rice ready to be offered….

    One of the few remaining historically authentic places in Asia, this famed city of temples in Laos is increasingly vulnerable to losing its original charm as the forces of globalisation encroach.

    Hundreds of foreign tourists are at the almsgiving site to witness the religious activity, which TripAdvisor ranks 13th on a list of things to do in the ancient capital.

    Many intrepid travellers run alongside the monks with their digital cameras, afraid of missing a great shot, while a dozen of Korean tourists sit loosely in a red open-sided tram car to watch the monks passing by.

    A monk who has been at the site for seven years tells me that such behaviour, while it might seem funny at times, is gradually wearing down the authentic element of the sacred ceremony.

    Tourism authorities are aware of the challenges. They have asked local businesses to do their part to ensure that tourists embrace Lao culture and acknowledge the almsgiving as a spiritual and religious activity, not as a street sideshow.

    Wat Xieng Thong, built in in Luang Prabang, is one of the most important Lao monasteries. Until the Communist takeover in the wat was a royal temple under the patronage of the royal family and Lao kings were crowned there.

    Some even walk bare-breasted through the city. Local people, of course, are laughing at them. Since being listed as a World Heritage Site in by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Unesco , Luang Prabang has been subject to stringent regulations to preserve the ancient culture and traditional architecture.

    For example, in the Unesco-restricted area, the French-colonial style structures and Lao wooden houses can be no higher than two storeys.

    The scenery conveys an air of serenity, but behind that calm facade, the lifestyle of local people is undergoing rapid modernisation.

    Society is changing and evolving, and you have to allow society to evolve and change as well. She raises her company as a good example in terms of maintaining a balance between cultural preservation and doing a fair business.

    That would certainly put a strain on Luang Prabang, where planners say the maximum carrying capacity is currently about 6, visitors per day.

    Growth seems inevitable because reaching Luang Prabang is getting easier, with more flights as well as bus services from neighbouring countries.

    But accommodation remains scarce because of strict restrictions limiting hotels to no more than 25 rooms each. Turning this place into a hotel was intended to maintain the old structure while also keeping it alive.

    The management of the hotel will soon be taken over by the French luxury brand Sofitel, the first global brand to enter Luang Prabang. The number rose from 3.

    Eighty percent of the tourist arrivals are from Asean travellers, with Thais alone accounting for The ratios have been consistent since Outside of hydropower, Laos has few other sources of foreign exchange, so it needs tourism, and it will need to manage it come what may.

    Nonetheless, the country must learn to loosen its heavy dependence on foreign financial aid, pay an opportunity cost for putting conservatism aside, and grab a better chance to flourish under a positive influence.

    The first documentary of the series was filmed in New York and received many positive notices. The New York episode was financed fully from own resources.

    The trio has a broad portfolio: filmmaking for events and music, PR, social media marketing. They discuss life in a strange land, choosing for themselves which aspect they prefer to talk about.

    The third instalment will probably be Berlin. They have concluded a study of about 5, Hungarians living in the United Kingdom on behalf of the Institute of Minority Research within the Research Centre of the Social Sciences at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, investigating on one hand the reasons for emigration and on the other the new life abroad.

    About three quarters of the respondents were happy outside of Hungary and one third would like to stay abroad. Their decisions were primarily based on the higher standard of living, better career chances and better income.

    According to the researchers, many migrants would move back to their Hungarian homeland as soon as the economic and political situation improves.

    Hungary Green Building Council. On the 20th of November next edition of Green Talk, monthly event organised by HuGBC and RICS was held.

    The ERM Foundation supports since a complex charity Project located in the City of Luang Prabang. The Project has several environmental aspects.

    ERM Foundation is involved in the development of a simple and cost effective water purification system. Further, the development of environmental education aspects and their embedment to the curriculum ofthe local primary school curriculum is one further aspect, which the team would like to support in the near future.

    The development of a simple, effective and easy to maintain water purification system comprised several steps of research activities, testing, analysis and monitoring works.

    The team built with the help of local supporters the first compact purification system in , containing the two purification steps; sand filter and UV treatment.

    As a further step, they would like to continue their support in Luang Prabang. The 35 BUDDHIST temples of Luang Prabang are delicate structures in need of frequent renovation.

    Damage caused by neglect, tropical rain, humidity and heat, together with the impact of increasing numbers of tourists, all erode the buildings.

    This year Wat Xieng Thong, the most important and magnificent wat in Luang Prabang, and Wat Pak Khan, one of the smallest but oldest in the city, have both undergone restoration and further enhance the cultural and aesthetic value of the former royal capital of Laos….

    Luang Prabang became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Maintaining and conserving sacred monuments is the highest priority, along with preserving the secular buildings as well, but funding is always needed.

    At Wat Pak Khan repairs and restoration were funded by The Badur Foundation and carried out by the The Buddhist Heritage Project under the auspices of the The Lao Buddhist Fellowship together with the Department of World Heritage.

    Wat Xieng Thong, which dates back to , needed immediate attention and the project involved the conservation of architectural surfaces of the main sim, the assembly hall, and its roof and the preservation of supporting structures within the complex.

    The temple, the finest example of religious architecture in Laos, had to have many roof tiles replaced and its intricate gold stencils restored.

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    BR Team Olsen 24MX. The number rose from 3. Eighty percent of the tourist arrivals are from Asean travellers, with Thais alone accounting for The ratios have been consistent since Outside of hydropower, Laos has few other sources of foreign exchange, so it needs tourism, and it will need to manage it come what may.

    Nonetheless, the country must learn to loosen its heavy dependence on foreign financial aid, pay an opportunity cost for putting conservatism aside, and grab a better chance to flourish under a positive influence.

    The first documentary of the series was filmed in New York and received many positive notices. The New York episode was financed fully from own resources.

    The trio has a broad portfolio: filmmaking for events and music, PR, social media marketing. They discuss life in a strange land, choosing for themselves which aspect they prefer to talk about.

    The third instalment will probably be Berlin. They have concluded a study of about 5, Hungarians living in the United Kingdom on behalf of the Institute of Minority Research within the Research Centre of the Social Sciences at the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, investigating on one hand the reasons for emigration and on the other the new life abroad.

    About three quarters of the respondents were happy outside of Hungary and one third would like to stay abroad. Their decisions were primarily based on the higher standard of living, better career chances and better income.

    According to the researchers, many migrants would move back to their Hungarian homeland as soon as the economic and political situation improves.

    Hungary Green Building Council. On the 20th of November next edition of Green Talk, monthly event organised by HuGBC and RICS was held.

    The ERM Foundation supports since a complex charity Project located in the City of Luang Prabang. The Project has several environmental aspects. ERM Foundation is involved in the development of a simple and cost effective water purification system.

    Further, the development of environmental education aspects and their embedment to the curriculum ofthe local primary school curriculum is one further aspect, which the team would like to support in the near future.

    The development of a simple, effective and easy to maintain water purification system comprised several steps of research activities, testing, analysis and monitoring works.

    The team built with the help of local supporters the first compact purification system in , containing the two purification steps; sand filter and UV treatment.

    As a further step, they would like to continue their support in Luang Prabang. Luang Prabang became a UNESCO World Heritage Site in Maintaining and conserving sacred monuments is the highest priority, along with preserving the secular buildings as well, but funding is always needed.

    At Wat Pak Khan repairs and restoration were funded by The Badur Foundation and carried out by the The Buddhist Heritage Project under the auspices of the The Lao Buddhist Fellowship together with the Department of World Heritage.

    Wat Xieng Thong, which dates back to , needed immediate attention and the project involved the conservation of architectural surfaces of the main sim, the assembly hall, and its roof and the preservation of supporting structures within the complex.

    The temple, the finest example of religious architecture in Laos, had to have many roof tiles replaced and its intricate gold stencils restored.

    The sim has characteristic successive cascading and telescoping roofs that sweep down almost to the ground and completely dominate the entire structure, like a huge, elaborate crown, with a golden decoration featuring 17 parasols, the dok so faa, in the middle.

    If more than 12 are Luang Prabang Temple Renovation present, this denotes a temple built by a king. The dok so faa symbolises Mount Meru, abode of the gods, the axis mundi, centre of the world, surrounded by the seven mythical chain of mountains of Hindu mythology.

    In Laos, religion is syncretic, incorporating Hindu, Buddhist and animistic references. Cho faa, finials in the form of nagas, the serpent of Hindu mythology, now freshly painted in turquoise, rear up at the triangular tip of each roof, as if to raise them up again.

    Although colours are now, somewhat controversially, brighter than before, the repairs were sympathetic to the original designs. The tiles all had to be carefully numbered when removed to ensure that they would each be put back in their original places.

    Damaged pieces were replaced, ensuring matching colours and materials, and attached using traditional techniques that had been employed when the temple was built.

    The edging of the roof is covered with golden motifs, foliage and flowers, while the inner, underneath section is deep red and covered with more gold dharma wheels which were restored.

    Golden, carved eave brackets support the lowest roof which is edged with delicate golden pointed leaf-like forms. The temple was built by King Setthathirat, who ruled from It has always served as the traditional coronation site for kings as well as the focus of several annual festivals honouring the Buddha and various folk spirits.

    King Setthathirat created it in memory of the legendary King Chanthaphanith, whose stories are depicted in golden stencilled imagery inside the main sim.

    Traditionally wats were grouped around royal residences, built with royal patronage or by affluent individuals, as funding the building of a wat gains merit in Buddhism.

    The king employed master craftsmen and architects, specialists in ivory, wood, gold or silver, carving and stencilling, and monks themselves worked as carpenters, sculptors and painters.

    The upkeep of most wats, and that of the monks living within them, is entirely dependent upon donations from the community.

    But supporting the monastery and giving alms to the monks also brings merit to the donors. Always well maintained, Wat Xieng Thong, much admired and described in detail by French scholars during the colonial regime, survived the ravages of wars and depredation and inspired UNESCO to make it — and eventually the entire city of Luang Prabang — into a World Heritage Site.

    Situated at the tip of the promontory of Luang Prabang, where the Nam Khan river flows into the Mekong, the site is, so legend relates, where a golden boundary stone was laid to demarcate the territory of the city by two hermits who were brothers.

    They became its tutelary spirits. Wat Xieng Thong — Xieng meaning city and Thong meaning bodhi tree sometimes also described as a copper tree was known as Temple of the Golden City and was considered a gateway to Luang Prabang.

    Set in a peaceful compound, among ancient banyan trees, palms, frangipani and blazing scarlet and purple bougainvillea, this graceful, classical style wat, with all its shrines and chapels, radiates serenity and is especially atmospheric in the late afternoon, as the sun drops behind the wat, when its gleaming gables and golden stencils shimmer beneath the cascading roof.

    Cleaning these first was necessary, an exacting task, with careful redrawing of the images which had faded badly was carried out by master craftsmen using lacquer and paper thin wafers of gold leaf as well as gold paint.

    The external walls of the sim have a sumptuous jewel box appearance, a riot of ornate gold stencils of deities, mythological animals, floral motifs and lotus flowers.

    At the top of the outer walls, flying kinaree, mythical part-bird part-human divinities, interspersed with small and large dharma wheels, fill almost every space in harmonious patterns.

    Deities are surrounded by images of the Buddha in meditation and small flying apsaras, female celestial dancers, and divinities.

    In the centre, apsaras, in gold costumes and holding lotus flowers stand gracefully on mythological lions whose backs are covered with decorated textiles with their tails curling upwards to end in lotus flowers.

    At the lowest level are smaller images of local people walking in a row, some touchingly fragile and bent with age, holding walking sticks, rather dwarfed by the celestial imagery above them as they approach the Buddha to give offerings and prayers.

    Thus, the wall of the sim presents the worshipper with notions of the mundane and the transcendent, the human level and the higher realms, and the three worlds of Buddhist cosmology, the traiphum.

    Doorways on either side of the back of the sim, the western end, also needed restoration of the golden images, which include Rama, hero of the Ramayana, known in Laos as the Phra Lak Phra Lam.

    The Thong symbolised the initial boundary pillar planted by the two holy hermits and, according to the Lao legend The Myth of Khun Burom resembled a tree from the celestial city of Indra with innumerable flowers that blossomed eternally.

    The tree can also be interpreted as a Tree of Life, resonant with notions of cosmic unity, as the roots reach down into the ground and the branches stretch upwards to heaven.

    The tree-of-life motif recurs throughout Southeast Asia and is an archetypal cosmological symbol of the axis mundi, the link between the heavens, the earth and the underworld.

    Some of the kutis were also restored, with repairs carried out to the walls, some of which had to be replaced, and roofs, and included the installation of electricity.

    Restoration was done to one of the historic octagonal stupas, involving special cleaning of the glass inlays and replacement of those which were too badly damaged to be rescued.

    Across the main road from Wat Xieng Thong, on the tip of the peninsula, lies a smaller temple, less visited and much quieter, Wat Pak Khan. Being less significant than its celebrated neighbour, it had fallen into a state of dilapidation until renovation started this year.

    Its name derives from its location at the tributary of the Nam Khan and Mekong. Built by Phagna Chanthep under King Inta Som, who ruled from , it was reconstructed in the early 20th century during the French protectorate.

    Now this peaceful wat has been meticulously restored and embellished under the auspices of the Department of World Heritage and The Lao Buddhist Fellowship, with works carried out by The Buddhist Heritage Project, funded by The Badur Foundation.

    The Lao Buddhist Fellowship Organisation was established in and aims to manage, develop and educate Buddhists so that its members can observe and respect the laws of the country.

    With branches in every province of Laos, it currently incorporates 8, monks, 13, novices, nuns and sanghali in 4, temples around the country.

    As in many other Buddhist countries, education in Laos was conducted in monasteries, where monks were trained and educated for years and then taught and advised the members of the Sangha, the holy community, as well as lay people.

    A wat therefore has several functions. It is a site for religious worship, a community centre, a place of education and of healing, and all young Lao men spend at least a few months of their lives as novice monks in a wat.

    Wat Pak Khan, dating from approximately , is noteworthy because of its age and location. In particular, the attractively carved door panels and window shutters have been carefully renovated and in their pristine state are a perfect example of the gentle, understated sacred art of Luang Prabang.

    The sim has a two-tiered tiled roof, independent of each other, and newly painted white walls and four windows freshly painted red on either side with simply carved wooden eave brackets in the form of nagas.

    The eastern entrance has a main door with two smaller doors on either side. Of note are the two elegantly depicted images of Rama in gold on the central panels of the main doorway.

    Each has a serene smile and radiant expression, with a tall pointed crown and a halo and two sets of arms, revealing his divine status, with an elaborate close fitting costume, poised like a slender dancer with long legs in graceful movements and delicate hand movements, above an image of Hanuman, the monkey general, who is on bended knee, with similarly dancerly grace.

    They are surrounded by gilded lotus flowers and curling floral motifs in curvaceous abundance that is carefully contained within the parameters of the rectangular door.

    On the window shutters the figures of divinities have hands joined in prayer carved in high relief, an unusual feature, and faces that radiate sweetness and tranquillity.

    The cleaning and restoration of these doorways and windows have enhanced the carvings to show the sensitivity and refinement that artists brought to their sacred imagery.

    Never monumental or overwhelming, the size and proportion of Lao temples have a human scale which establishes an immediacy of contact between the pilgrim and the sacred space, creating an intimacy where the worshipper is not overawed.

    This creates an atmosphere of calm and acceptance that are the essential spirit of Buddhism. Support for these two projects has been invaluable as Laos is still a cashstrapped country with little industry apart from tourism.

    These have included support for The Traditional Arts and Enthnology Centre in Luang Prabang, a museum dedicated to ethnic minorities, in order to document the cultural practices of the Katu ethnic minority group of southern Laos and to promote pride within Katu communities of their artistic legacy.

    The Fund also supported conservation and restoration of artefacts at Wat Visoun in Luang Prabang, which has a remarkable collection of Buddha statues, as well as funding for the preservation of fragile palm leaf manuscripts at the National Library in Vientiane.

    These projects funded by the Badur Foundation and the US Ambassadors Fund nurture and enrich the city for the pride of its citizens as well as promoting it internationally.

    They highlight it as a place of oustanding artistic and historic interest, a centre of religious worship and a living museum of incomparable cultural heritage to be preserved for future generations.

    Nottingham Post. They will help them with homework, including literacy and numeracy, and offer one-to-one support with problems.

    Children involved in the Nottingham Potential project will also be given information about bursaries available to help finance university courses in the future.

    The university is being backed by London-based charity IntoUniversity, which aims to help young people from poor areas into higher education.

    Stephen Dudderidge, director of student operations and support at the university, said 16, youngsters a year from schools could benefit from the scheme by The estate is part of the Nottingham North constituency, which has had high levels of unemployment in recent years.

    They will be able to take groups during school time and youngsters will be able to go for one-to-one help after school. Those in secondary schools will be offered help with choosing GCSE and A-level options, coursework, exam preparation, careers advice and applying for university.

    It will provide real role models for young people from Nottingham to raise their aspirations. In the early morning mist, the lay community — men, women and children — kneel or sit with bowls of sticky rice to await the monks to whom they will offer it, an act performed in serenity and prayer.

    By giving, they earn merit and blessings, participating in a living ritual that is practised throughout the country and throughout Southeast Asia.

    But this is a practice under threat. The tak bat — also known as the sai bat in Lao — is a source of admiration by most visitors.

    But it has become so popular as a tourist attraction that in some places monks can hardly process through the streets as they are blocked by raucous tour groups with flashing cameras.

    So disruptive has this become to their religious life that many of them no longer wish to collect alms and the Senior Abbot, Sa Thu Boun Than, is asking for legal help.

    To raise awareness of this problem, the art and education project, The Quiet in The Land, created a poster that was placed in many hotels.

    In addition, a leaflet entitled Help Us Respect the Almsgiving Ceremony has been distributed throughout the town, published by the provincial tourist office and supported by the Lao Buddhist Fellowship and hotels such as the Amantaka and the Phou Vao Resort which are dedicated to the preservation of such traditions.

    The leaflet, illustrated with a photograph by Hans Berger who has documented Lao Buddhist life, explains the custom and begs visitors to respect it with appropriate behaviour and dress.

    It asks that they participate in the ceremony only if it has personal meaning for them, rather than purchase rice sold by unscrupulous locals to give indiscriminately and thereby trivialise a sacred tradition.

    However, the people of Luang Prabang, especially the monks, ask that this is done is a respectful way and visitors do everything they can not to disrupt this ancient tradition.

    It was a tradition that Khamtanh himself participated in as a novice monk when he was younger. Like most Lao boys, he spent several months at a temple and took part in the tak bat.

    For most Laotians, holy rituals have always been fundamental to their way of life, part of every festival and celebration.

    Monthly rites and ceremonies connected with agricultural seasons, rice planting, full moons and new year, in which the entire community participates, structure the annual calendar and the way in which they organise their lives.

    Religion and society are not separate, but form part of a seamless whole, where spiritual well-being is essential to personal and universal harmony.

    Theravada Buddhism was adopted in the 13th and early 14th centuries, influenced by the Khmer kingdom, adding further layers to an already complex belief system based on animism and the guardian protectors, devata luang, Pu No and Na No, of the town and its territories.

    Buddhism spread slowly and was first declared a state religion in the 14th century by King Fa Ngum, which he did by accepting from his Khmer father-in-law the golden Pra Bang Buddha, the palladium of the Kingdom of Lane Xang.

    In , he built a wat in Muang Swa, the early name of Luang Prabang, to house this revered image which today, although rumoured to be a replica, is kept within the former Royal Palace, now the National Museum, and for which a new shrine has been built in the grounds.

    It was added to animistic practices, including spirit, phi, worship, and images of Buddhism were surrounded by ritual offerings of food, fruits, flowers, incense and candles.

    By the 19th century, 63 Buddhist temples had been built in Luang Prabang, although today only 35 remain. Among the most important of these wats were Xieng Thong, Tat Luang, Visoun, Mai and Aham, places of ritual and royal worship and important respositeries of knowledge with manuscripts on palm leaf, in Pali, teaching the Buddhist canon, as well as lacquerware and textiles, which resonated with religious symbolism.

    Wats were grouped around the royal residences, built with royal patronage or by affluent individuals, as funding the building of a wat gains merit in Buddhism.

    The king employed master craftsmen and architects to build them, specialists in ivory, wood, gold or silver, carving and stencilling, and even today monks themselves work as carpenters, sculptors and painters.

    The upkeep of most wats, and that of the monks living within them, is entirely dependent upon donations from the community, since monks become ascetic and relinquish all possessions except their robes and an alms bowl.

    But supporting the monastery and giving alms brings merit to the donors, improving their karma. The first European to penetrate this remote, mountainous place, Frenchman Henri Mouhot, arrived in — years ago this year — followed by French colonisers whose influence would change the mythological and ceremonial society structured around the temples.

    Nevertheless, these customs continued to be upheld right into the 20th century, even during three decades of war, civil unrest, revolution and social changes, culminating in the victory of the communist Pathet Lao in The monarchy was abolished — the last uncrowned king, Savang Vatthana, and his family died in captivity in northern Laos — and Buddhism was temporarily banned, but these practices never completely disappeared.

    The eventual return to peace brought an immediate resumption of the familiar ways of life and of these the tak bat was the simplest and most fundamental, a daily practice of respect and honour.

    When Luang Prabang was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in to protect its fragile culture, a status extending to sacred structures which make up the 35 temples together with civic buildings, it started to become a key destination for tourists to Southeast Asia.

    Tourism has been the most significant benefit of heritage inscription. A place that has historically never been abandoned, as many other ancients sites have, its social elements have remained intact, reflecting a living heritage site, and the preservation of its customs, especially the tak bat, have become part of the tourist attraction.

    As the tranquil town of just , people adapts to the demands and changes this has brought, many materially advantageous and alleviating poverty that previously existed, the risks are a loss of authenticity and identity and commodification of its cultural heritage.

    This applies to its intangible heritage. Ironically, as the town has improved economically, aspects of daily life have deteriorated, including the rituals that people were proud of and that made it so alluring to visitors.

    Transformations are occurring in living arts such as textiles, for example, where weavers now cater for tourists and international trade rather than for local communities.

    Residents are moving out of their homes and leasing them to foreigners so that the town is visibly changing from a living entity into a commercial museum.

    Museumification is inevitable, in particular at the most important temple, Wat Xieng Thong, where the impact of so many tourists renders it difficult to function as a wat where monks can meditate and study scriptures.

    While many visitors witnessing the tak bat adhere to the solemnity of the occasion, the sheer numbers and presence of those for whom it is just another tourist show, mitigate against it.

    Yet, if travel agencies and tour guides show visitors how to respect the ceremony, if hotels distribute and display the leaflets, tourists can understand the religious implications even though their time in a Buddhist country may be short — usually only three days.

    Thus, hopefully, the situation can be managed and the soul of the town preserved. If visitors are made aware of Buddhism, its philosophy and history, they can appreciate the dignity and beauty of this ceremony and its role in the life of Luang Prabang.

    In this way, the ancient practice can be perpetuated, heralding the start of each day at dawn as hundreds of monks in orange robes walk barefoot through the streets in silence to perform the tak bat.

    Listed below are publications that we feel provide a wider context to the projects and regions supported by the Foundation.

    Reference: Durst, J. In: Vidra Zs. The Czech, Hungarian and Slovak case. Budapest: CEU CPS. Acta Ethnographica Hungarica, Jun , Vol.

    Reference: Havas, G. Kritika , 3. Reference: Stewart, M. Populism and the New Anti-Gypsy Politics. London: Hurst.

    Budapest: Gondolat —MTA ENKI. Constructing Gypsy Ethnicity and the Making of an Underclass in Transitional Societies of Europe.

    New York: Columbia University Press. Boulder: Westview Press. The archive contains more than 15, single photographs covering years of Buddhist photography.

    Please click here for further details on the scanning and digitizing project. It is this photography archive which is now housed in the newly renovated archive buildings funded by the Badur Foundation.

    Please click here for more details on this renovation project. Reference: Nick Temple , The Future of Business: State of Social Enterprise Survey Poverty reduction and Livelihoods Natural resources, climate change and disaster risk reduction.

    To read more about this project, please click here. Title Source Date. Volt olyan gyerek, aki azt sem tudta, mi az a tablet. Partizan Youtube.

    Le Petit Prince of Laos. Barista Training Academy sees ten trainees secure futures in coffee. Magical Laos: Rosewood Luang Prabang.

    Preserving and Protecting the Buddhist Heritage of Laos. A Female Psychodrama as Kitchen Sink Drama: Long Live Regina!

    Roma Heroes - I. International Roma Storytelling Festival. Social Enterprise Workshop in Budapest. Student scheme turns trash into treasure - for good causes.

    Nottingham Students win national social enterprise competition. Enactus Nottingham Crowned Enactus UK National Champion Request a Collection of Bulky Items.

    Ford Challenges University Students to be Social Entrepreneurs and Help Communities. Angry Buddha documentary. Jason Banks: Managing Director of Re-covered.

    Cherie White: when an MSc is just the beginning Furniture at low, low prices! Supporting students to keep it clean! Nottingham Investing in the Sports Stars of Tomorrow.

    Nottingham Potential opens its doors to the local community. Culture at a Crossroads.

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